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مَروان صَقر, محامٍ متخصص في القانون الدولي التجاري والإقتصادي ومُحكم دولي معتمد


March 2020
مراجع مقال مشروع قانون "الكابيتال كونترول" بين مطرقة صندوق النقد الدولي وسندان المستثمرين الأجانب

1)  https://www.imf.org/external/SelectedDecisions/Description.aspx?decision=1034-(60/27) 
2) وتنص الفقرة (L) على ما يلي:
L-CAPITAL TRANSFERS
L-1. If a large or sustained outflow of capital from a member country is taking place:
)a) that member or any other member may notify the Fund, presenting such information as it deems necessary, and may request the Fund's views with respect to such capital movement; and
)b) the Fund may present to the member or members concerned a report setting forth its views, and may request the member or members to report on the situation within a suitable time.
Adopted September 25, 1946
L-2. Whenever the Fund has requested a member to exercise controls to prevent use of the general resources of the Fund to meet a large or sustained outflow of capital, the Fund shall request the member to notify it promptly and in detail of the measures taken.
Adopted September 25, 1946, amended April 1, 1978
L-3. Each member shall inform the Fund in detail of any measures it is taking to regulate international capital movements and of changes made in such measures.
Adopted September 25, 1946, amended April 1, 1978
L-4. If the Fund is of the opinion that the controls exercised by a member to regulate international capital movements are restrictive of payments for current international transactions, or unduly delay transfers of funds in settlement of commitments, the Fund shall, subject to the provisions of Article VII, Section 3(b) and Article XIV, Section 2, consult with the member on the manner in which the controls are exercised. If, after consultation, the Fund is not satisfied that the controls are exercised in a manner consistent with the Articles, it shall so inform the member in a written report and request it to modify the controls.
Adopted September 25, 1946, amended April 1, 1978
https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bl/pdf/by-laws.pdf
3) أنظر:
https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/Policy-Papers/Issues/2016/12/31/The-Liberalization-and-Management-of-Capital-Flows-An-Institutional-View-PP4720
4)  حول سلطة صندوق في فرض العقوبات:
Joseph Gold, The "Sanctions" of the International Monetary Fund, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 66, No. 5 (Oct. 1972), pp. 737-762  
5) أنظر:
UNCTAD, Bilateral Investment Treaties 1995 – 2006: Trends in Investment Rulemaking, UNCTAD/ITE/IIT/2006/5 (2007) p. 56 et seq
6)  راجع:
UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II, Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment, UNCTAD/DIAE/IA/2010/1, UN Publications 2010, p. 13
7) Maffezini v Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/97/7 (Decision on Jurisdiction)
8) راجع:
Suzy H. Nikièma, The Most-Favoured-Nation Clause in Investment Treaties IISD Best Practices Series – February 2017, pp. 10-12. https://www.iisd.org/sites/default/files/publications/mfn-most-favoured-nation-clause-best-practices-en.pdf
راجع كذلك:
MTD v Chile (ICSID Case No ARB/01/7); Rumeli Telekom AS and Telsim Mobil Telekomikasyon Hizmetleri AS v Kazakhstan (ICSID Case No ARB/05/16, Award, 29 July 2008)
9)   IMF, 2012b, 42
10) بصورة عامة، وضع الإجتهاد التحكيمي معايير موضوعية لتحديد مفهوم الاستثمار الاجنبي في القانون الدولي وفقاً ثلاثة معايير يجب أن يتمتع بها النشاط الإقتصادي الاجنبي في دولة ما ليمكن وصفه كذلك (بخاصة في في قضيتيْ سالينيٍ Salini ضد المغرب (ICSID Case No. ARB/00/4)   وليزي LESI ضد الجزائر (ICSID Case No. ARB/05/3) . وهذه المعايير هي إلاسهام أو المساهمة برأس مال أو إسهام عيني أو بشكل آخر؛والمدة أو الدّوام، إذ إنه لا استثمار من دون ديمومة؛ إضافة الى المخاطرة ويقتضي الاستثمار بالضرورة المشاركة في أرباح أو خسائر الاستثمار.في حين ما زال الجدل قائمًا بشأن معيار رابع، ألا وهو مساهمة الاستثمارالأجنبي في التنمية الاقتصادية للدولة المُضيفة. ويراجع بشكل عام حول تحديد مفهومي "المستثمر و"الإستثمار" في القانون الدولي:
 C.H. Schreuer, et al., The ICSID Convention (CUP, 2nd edn, 2009), pp. 128 et seq., 160 et seq.
11)   ICSID Case No. ARB/02/16
12)  ICSID Case No. ARB/01/3
13) ICSID Case No. ARB/03/19
 






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